The parathyroid gland is a small organ located on the thyroid gland in the neck. The hormone produced by this gland regulates calcium and phosphate levels in the blood. It also plays a role in maintaining muscle function, nerve transmission, and sexual development.
What are Hormones?
Hormones are chemical messengers released from endocrine glands and travel through the bloodstream to reach their target tissues. Hormones regulate many body functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproduction.
How many types of hormones are there?
The endocrine system comprises glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. These hormones travel to other cells and exert their effect via specific receptors on the surface of those cells.
The exocrine system comprises glands that secrete their secretions onto a surface, such as your skin or digestive tract. This type of secretion is known as a “salt-and-pepper” glandular pattern because it causes small lumps (papillae) to form in a particular area. These lumps give you texture.
The paracrine system releases its secretions within spaces between different tissues; in this way, they work more locally than endocrine or exocrine hormones.
For example, when you get an injury to your skin or an infection in your joints, inflammatory fluids are released into these areas by nearby macrophages (the white blood cells responsible for killing bacteria).
The increased fluid fills up all available space, so bacteria can’t grow there anymore.
What is a parathyroid hormone?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a hormone secreted into the bloodstream by four tiny endocrine glands called parathyroid. They’re located right behind your thyroid gland, at the base of your neck. Each of your parathyroid is about the size of a grain of rice and produces about one microgram of PTH daily—about one-millionth of a gram.
PTH acts on bones and kidneys to control calcium and phosphorus in your blood. When released from its gland, it binds to receptors on bone cells called osteocytes (osteo means bone).
Then calcium can be released from these cells into the bloodstream as needed for normal muscle contraction or nerve transmission.
What function does parathyroid hormone perform?
To understand what parathyroid hormone does, it’s important to know a little bit about how calcium and phosphorus are regulated.
The body needs a specific amount of calcium in the blood for normal functioning. However, if you don’t get enough calcium from food or drink, your bones release some of this stored mineral into your bloodstream so that you can use it.
The parathyroid glands monitor this process and secrete PTH when they detect that there are too few minerals in the blood (hypocalcemia). PTH causes bone cells called osteocytes to break down bone tissue and release its stores of minerals into the bloodstream.
This increases the calcium concentration available for vital processes like muscle contraction and nerve conduction; it also helps maintain normal blood pressure by preventing calcium from being removed from arteries by pumps called calcitonin receptors in smooth muscle cells lining arterial walls.
PTH also regulates phosphorus levels: when there’s too much Phosphate (Phosphate is found naturally in foods).
It triggers an increase in vitamin D activity—and since vitamin D helps absorb both Phosphate and calcitriol (a form of vitamin D), this means that more Phosphate gets absorbed as well!
Mechanism of parathyroid hormone?
Parathyroid hormone is a peptide hormone that regulates calcium and phosphate levels in the blood. It is secreted by four parathyroid glands on the back of your thyroid gland.
It works by stimulating bone reabsorption, increasing the calcium released from bone into the blood. It also inhibits absorption by intestinal cells and promotes secretion into the urine, which causes an increase in excretion of Phosphate with calcium.
Which organs does the parathyroid hormone affect?
It affects the following organs:
The kidneys are responsible for disposing of excess calcium and phosphorus by removing them through urine. Parathyroid hormone raises the amount of calcium in urine, which helps your bones absorb it.
The parathyroid hormone helps increase bone density by increasing bone calcium levels. It also inhibits the bone breakdown (the process where old bone is removed and new bone is created).
The liver produces a substance called calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) that helps regulate parathyroid hormone secretion, thus maintaining healthy levels in your blood.
The heart uses parathyroid hormones to maintain normal blood pressure levels because they affect cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation rates and heart muscle metabolism by increasing or decreasing its ability to contract depending on what’s needed at any given moment during exercise intensity levels or rest periods.
All this happens when you’re under stress from physical activity, such as running around trying not to get hit by bullets when playing Call Of Duty all night.
Parathyroid hormone also regulates blood clotting, which explains why you don’t bleed to death when you get shot in the game.
In addition, it helps regulate your body’s temperature by increasing it when exposed to cold temperatures (which is why people wearing sweaters are so hot) and decreasing it when exposed to heat (that’s why air conditioners exist).
What are the disorders of parathyroid?
Hyperparathyroidism is a condition where the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone. This can cause abnormal heart rate, low blood calcium levels, and kidney stones.
Hypoparathyroidism is a deficiency of the parathyroid hormone in the body that can cause symptoms like muscle weakness and irritability.
Parathyroid adenoma is a benign tumor that grows in one of your four parathyroid and causes them to overproduce calcium without the help of vitamin D from sunlight or food intake.
Other symptoms include fatigue and loss of appetite due to low calcium levels in your blood (hypocalcemia).
Parathyroid carcinoma is a cancerous tumor that develops in one or more glands on your thyroid gland; it may also be called ‘PTC.’ In addition to causing hypercalcemia (high calcium levels), PTC has been linked with hypocalcemia.
Signs and symptoms of disorders?
If you have low calcium levels, you might experience some of the following symptoms:
Nausea and vomiting (possibly with diarrhea)
If you have high calcium levels, these are some of the signs and symptoms you may experience:
Muscle cramps in your legs or arms
You also may have a high phosphate level if you are experiencing these problems:
Vomiting (possibly with diarrhea)
Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting (possibly diarrhea) Confusion or changes in mental status, such as disorientation, forgetfulness, and irritability. If you face any of these symptoms, contact your doctor.
How can we prevent and cure it?
To prevent parathyroid disease, you should avoid stress, eat healthily, and exercise regularly. You should also ensure you get enough sleep and take calcium and vitamin D supplements if necessary.
If having any doubts about your health, it’s a good idea to have a full body checkup at least once a year.
In addition to these lifestyle changes, several medications can help people suffering from hyperparathyroidism manage their condition effectively. For example:
This synthetic version of the hormone works by slowing the rate at which calcium is released into the bloodstream from bones; it’s available in both nasal spray form and injectable form.
Vitamin D supplements
This vitamin helps your body absorb calcium from food and can be taken in tablet form or as an injection.
So, in the end, we can say that the parathyroid hormone is a very important hormone that regulates calcium levels in our body. It also helps to maintain the equilibrium between minerals and vitamins in our bodies.
If there is any disruption in this system, then it may lead to various diseases such as osteoporosis or rickets. So, we need to maintain proper health through diet and lifestyle.